Scientists have identified a new type of human stem cells and grew them from the bones in mice. In the future, the discovery will help to ensure the rapid healing of fractures in humans, the restoration of bone tissue in patients with osteoporosis and growing new bones and cartilage.
2027: What will be your home in 10 years
A team of researchers from Stanford University have received a new type of stem cells from embryonic femur, which can differentiate into cells of bone and cartilaginous tissues and in the stroma, that is, in the cells of the connective tissue unformed. The study is published in the journal Cell.
Stem cells — undifferentiated, that is in any way non-specialized cells able to differentiate in mitosis and form all types of tissues in the body. An example of a stem cell — the zygote: it refers to totipotent stem cells that give rise to the whole organism. The greater part of types after several cycles of division of the zygote ceases to be totipotent. Other stem cells can be pluripotent (i.e., capable of forming all types of tissues throughout the body, except extraembryonal), multipotent, creating all kinds of fabrics, but in certain parts of the body, and oligopotent — differentiated exclusively in the properties of similar types of cells.
Stem cells can be found not only in embryos but also in adults. However, with age, they are becoming less. Modern medicine has learned how to implant human stem cells for disease treatment and tissue repair. However, because of the ways of obtaining stem cells, this issue can sometimes cause ethical controversy. In particular, we are talking about fetal cells, that is derived from abortive material. These samples are used mainly in scientific research — along with cells derived from embryos at in vitro fertilization.
A graphical description of the research / ©Cell
What fetal stem cells were able to detect scientists from Stanford cataloging types of RNA tissue human embryonic femur. Samples were transferred to a Petri dish where the cells have begun to share, and then doctors implanted them into the kidneys of laboratory mice. The transplanted cells began to differentiate into bone cells. After that, cells grown bone transplanted to another rodent, and there they began to differentiate.
It turned out that the discovered stem cells after specialization can form bones and cartilage, but never become fat cells. This makes them very specific, but very promising. So, doctors could effectively treat fractures and diseases of bones.
In the spring, scientists were able to make another medical breakthrough in this field. The researchers conducted their in utero transplantation cure baby from alpha-thalassemia.